Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) has an ERP5 rank of 6512. The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. It looks at the stock’s Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The lower the rank, the more undervalued a company is considered to be.

Active investors are constantly faced with tough decisions when managing their own stock portfolios. Deciding when to sell a certain stock may be just as vital as choosing which stocks to buy in the first place. There are bound to be extremes on both sides when analyzing buy and sell decisions. Maybe a well researched stock hasn’t seen the gains that were expected at the outset. When emotions take over, the investor may not be able to part with the stock. They may hold on to the equity with the hopes that someday it will bounce back. Of course this may happen eventually, but the situation could also worsen and the stock may keep losing. The same decisions sometimes have to be made when dealing with a winning stock. After a big run, the investor may have to decide whether to take the profits or hold off to see if the stock will continue to push upwards. These are no easy decisions for the individual investor. Being able to make the proper portfolio moves may take some time to master, but it may end up being highly important for continued, long-term success.

FCF Yield 5yr Avg

The FCF Yield 5yr Average is calculated by taking the five year average free cash flow of a company, and dividing it by the current enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The average FCF of a company is determined by looking at the cash generated by operations of the company. The Free Cash Flow Yield 5 Year Average of Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 0.013225.

**Technicals & Ratios**

The EBITDA Yield is a great way to determine a company’s profitability. This number is calculated by dividing a company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization by the company’s enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The EBITDA Yield for Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 0.044518.

The Earnings to Price yield of Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 0.026417. This is calculated by taking the earnings per share and dividing it by the last closing share price. This is one of the most popular methods investors use to evaluate a company’s financial performance. Earnings Yield is calculated by taking the operating income or earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and dividing it by the Enterprise Value of the company. The Earnings Yield for Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 0.036777.

Earnings Yield helps investors measure the return on investment for a given company. Similarly, the Earnings Yield Five Year Average is the five year average operating income or EBIT divided by the current enterprise value. The Earnings Yield Five Year average for Kogan.com Ltd is 0.011620.

**Q.i. Value**

The Q.i. Value of Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 49.00000. The Q.i. Value is another helpful tool in determining if a company is undervalued or not. The Q.i. Value is calculated using the following ratios: EBITDA Yield, Earnings Yield, FCF Yield, and Liquidity. The lower the Q.i. value, the more undervalued the company is thought to be.

**Quant Scores**

The M-Score, conceived by accounting professor Messod Beneish, is a model for detecting whether a company has manipulated their earnings numbers or not. Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) has an M-Score of -1.840209. The M-Score is based on 8 different variables: Days’ sales in receivables index, Gross Margin Index, Asset Quality Index, Sales Growth Index, Depreciation Index, Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index, Leverage Index and Total Accruals to Total Assets. A score higher than -1.78 is an indicator that the company might be manipulating their numbers.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 63. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) is 56.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN). The name currently has a score of 50.00000. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

At the time of writing, Kogan.com Ltd (ASX:KGN) has a Piotroski F-Score of 3. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

It is no secret that most investors have the best of intentions when diving into the equity markets. Making sound, informed decisions can help the investor make the most progress when dealing with the markets. Often times, investors may think they have everything in order, but they still come out on the losing end. Investors may need to figure out ways to keep emotion out of stock picking. Sometimes trading on emotions can lead to poor results. Making hasty decisions and not paying attention to the correct data can lead to poor performing portfolios in the long-term.

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 3186. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

Investors looking to chalk up healthy returns in the stock market may need to pay attention to avoid common pitfalls. When the good times are rolling, investors may be highly tempted to move a lot of money into certain stocks that have been churning out returns. One problem with this approach is that a stock that has been hot for a few months might not be hot over the next three months. It is always important to remember that past performance does not guarantee future results. Getting into a stock too late may leave the average investor pounding the table as a former winner turns into a current loser.

Q.i. Value

The Q.i. Value of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 20.00000. The Q.i. Value is another helpful tool in determining if a company is undervalued or not. The Q.i. Value is calculated using the following ratios: EBITDA Yield, Earnings Yield, FCF Yield, and Liquidity. The lower the Q.i. value, the more undervalued the company is thought to be.

The EBITDA Yield is a great way to determine a company’s profitability. This number is calculated by dividing a company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization by the company’s enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The EBITDA Yield for Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 0.141480.

The Earnings to Price yield of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 0.010308. This is calculated by taking the earnings per share and dividing it by the last closing share price. This is one of the most popular methods investors use to evaluate a company’s financial performance. Earnings Yield is calculated by taking the operating income or earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and dividing it by the Enterprise Value of the company. The Earnings Yield for Luxfer Holdings PLC NYSE:LXFR is 0.109895. Earnings Yield helps investors measure the return on investment for a given company. Similarly, the Earnings Yield Five Year Average is the five year average operating income or EBIT divided by the current enterprise value. The Earnings Yield Five Year average for Luxfer Holdings PLC is 0.078309.

**FCF Yield 5yr Avg**

The FCF Yield 5yr Average is calculated by taking the five year average free cash flow of a company, and dividing it by the current enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The average FCF of a company is determined by looking at the cash generated by operations of the company. The Free Cash Flow Yield 5 Year Average of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 0.037865.

**Price to book, Price to cash flow, Price to earnings**

The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share. The Price to Book ratio for Luxfer Holdings PLC NYSE:LXFR is 2.507067. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued. Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value. The Price to Cash Flow for Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 15.335324. This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 97.012593. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

**Value Comp 1 / Value Comp 2**

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 38. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 37.

**Volatility 12 m, 6m, 3m**

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 56.746300. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized. The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 34.853000. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 35.659400.

**MF Rank**

The MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 1564. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

**Piotroski F-Score**

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 4. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

**Return on Assets**

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Luxfer Holdings PLC (NYSE:LXFR) is 0.011625. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

Investors might be looking into the magic eight ball trying to project where the stock market will be heading over the next few months. Some analysts believe that the market is ready to take a bearish turn, but others believe that there is still room for stocks to shoot higher. When the markets do have a sell-off, investors may be tempted to sell winners before they give up previous profits. Sometimes this may be justified, but other times this type of panic selling can cause investors to just have to repurchase shares at a higher price after the recovery. Keeping tabs on the underlying company fundamental data can help provide the investor with a better idea of whether to hold on to a stock or let it go.

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